A delicious living three-part series!
Part I: Understanding viruses and immunity
The human immune system is a wonder—and, in these unprecedented times, very much top of mind. “Your immune system is your interface with the environment,” explains Andrew Weil, MD. “If it’s healthy and doing its job right, your body can interact with germs and not get infections, with allergens and not have allergic reactions, and with carcinogens and not get cancer. A healthy immune system is the cornerstone of good general health.” Two main types of germs routinely challenge the immune system: bacteria and—most famously of late—viruses.
What happens when a virus invades?
If your body’s cells were a car or plane, you’d be right to refer to viruses as hijackers.
Viruses only survive if they can find a likely carrier—aka a source of living, normal cells to take over. If the carrier allows entry, the virus can then kill, damage, or change the cells in its quest to survive and multiply, making the carrier sick in the process. But if the carrier (you) has a good defense system (your immune system), then the hijacker is more likely to be defeated.
Even if you have a strong immune system, sometimes the virus is a successful hijacker. But the immune system doesn’t just give in; it goes into overdrive to get rid of the thief. Your normal white blood cell (leukocyte) count is about 4,500 to 11,000 per microliter of blood. When you get sick, this number skyrockets as your immune system produces more white blood cells to respond to the virus.
These cells immediately set out to defeat the hijacker … and that’s when symptoms start. “Symptoms like a stuffy nose or fever are actually the result of your immune system going to work,” says Dr. Thomas S. Ahrens, a fellow of the American Academy of Nursing and research scientist.
Viruses often spread easily. With one sneeze, we can eject up to 20,000 droplets that could contain hijacking virus particles. (Think rhinovirus particles—the typical cause of the common cold—or, yes, coronavirus particles.) Droplets are also ejected when we cough, talk, breathe, and laugh. Someone needs only to breathe in these particles or have the particles enter their eyes, nose, or mouth—for example, by touching their face—to give the virus the opportunity to hijack its next victim.
Immune system helpers
A potent immune strengthener, chaga can help us ward off harmful pathogens thanks to its antiviral activity—without toxic side effects. It can also help reduce inflammation in the body.
Extracts of echinacea have demonstrated a positive effect on the immune system by increasing the number of white blood cells, which fight infections. In a 2014 review of 24 studies involving more than 4,500 subjects, echinacea was found to help in preventing colds.
Otherwise known as vitamin B9, folate is essential to DNA synthesis and cell growth. Deficiency is thought to hamper immunity.
One of the essential amino acids (protein building blocks), lysine plays an important role in the immune system. Lysine is available in foods, primarily meat and dairy products, and also in supplement form as L-lysine.
Oil of oregano
Oil of oregano has long been used for the symptoms of colds, flu, bronchitis, and other respiratory complaints because of its anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial properties. According to researchers, carvacrol—an important constituent of oregano oil—has a unique way of breaking down the external proteins of the norovirus (a notoriously contagious virus that causes vomiting and diarrhea), potentially allowing the internal part of the virus to be killed by other antimicrobials.
These beneficial bacteria may be found in foods with live cultures, such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and pickles. Probiotics are also sold as capsules, tablets, liquid supplements, and loose powder. Probiotics can help promote immune health by secreting protective substances in the gut that then activate the immune system, preventing pathogens from taking hold.
Quercetin is a powerful antioxidant found in plant foods like citrus fruits, and preliminary research shows it may stop the rhinovirus in its tracks by preventing it from replicating and spreading.
Selenium is an important trace mineral for human functioning, including the immune system. Selenium is found in meat and dairy products, as well as nuts, seeds, and brown rice and in supplement form. Selenium has been the subject of ongoing studies focusing on its beneficial impact on white blood cells and immunity.
Vitamin B complex
The B-complex family encompasses eight vitamins, including folate. The B vitamins work together to convert the food we eat into fuel. A lack of B vitamins like B12 and B6 has been linked specifically with poor mood and a decrease in immunity. Because B12 is found mainly in animal products, vegans and vegetarians benefit from an extra boost (aka supplements), as may older people, who are more at risk of B12 deficiency.
An antioxidant that can be taken as a supplement on an ongoing basis to stimulate components of the immune system, vitamin C may help shorten the duration of the common cold. Bonus: Research has shown that people with higher vitamin C stores have lower risks of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke.
Supplementing with vitamin D helps ensure we get enough in our system, since sun exposure can be a challenge for many and food sources are few. Studies have shown that vitamin D can strengthen our immunity to infections due to vitamin D receptors on immune system cells.
This super antioxidant is involved in boosting the body’s immune function, helping to fight off bacteria and viruses. Vitamin E is also important for healthy skin and eyes. Good food sources of vitamin E include vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables, red bell peppers, eggs, seeds, and nuts, and supplements are readily available at natural health stores.
Research has demonstrated that people who supplement with zinc seem to catch fewer colds, and those who already have colds experience reduced duration and symptoms with zinc supplementation. Zinc stimulates the production of our own immune cells so that we have a better defense against viruses and bacteria.
A glossary of viruses
- virus: a microscopic parasite that depends upon its host to replicate; viruses are much smaller than—and different from—bacteria, and there are more than 200 different viruses that cause the common cold
- coronavirus: a family of viruses that cause infections in animals or humans; in humans, several types of coronaviruses cause mild to more severe respiratory infections like colds, pneumonia, or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
- SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: the specific name given to the newly discovered coronavirus that causes the disease COVID-19
- COVID-19: the name of the disease that is caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus
A glossary of immunity types
- innate (non-specific/natural) immunity: general protection we’re born with; fights harmful germs (e.g., viruses) that enter the body by using immune cells (e.g., T cells—“helper/killer cells”—and phagocytes—“eating cells”)
- adaptive (specific/active) immunity: protection that is acquired/adapted throughout life; immune system makes antibodies to fight specific bacteria/viruses
- passive (borrowed) immunity: short-term immune protection from another source (e.g., antibodies from mother’s breast milk)
“With one sneeze, we can eject up to 20,000 droplets that could contain hijacking virus particles.”
Next month, look for part II of our special series on immune health. It will explain the most important lifestyle habits to adopt to protect yourself. In part III, we’ll sift through immunity myths and facts.